Metric Formula  for the Deposit Stress Analyzer System:

CALCULATIONS: (For Thickness)

If the test strip legs are spread outward on the side that has been plated (plated side out and resist side in) the deposit stress is tensile in nature. If the test strip legs are spread inward on the side that has been plated, the deposit stress is compressive in nature. It is necessary to know the total units or increments spread between the plated test strip leg tips from both sides of the center line on the measuring block scale and the average deposit thickness in order to calculate the deposit stress. If the deposit thickness cannot be determined by actual measurement, it can be calculated as follows:

T =              W                   = cm

.               D (7.74 cm²)

T = deposit thickness in cm

W = deposit weight in grams,

D= Density of the plated material, g/cm³ (Table of Density Values for the D)

A = surface area in square centimeters. Since the plated surface area on a test strip is 7.74 square centimeters, the formula for nickel thickness can be shortened as follows:

Note: If using x-ray for thickness it would = T after the deposit thickness is known and the number of increments spread between the test strip leg tips has been determined, the deposit stress can be calculated thus:

Calculate the Deposit Stress:

S = UKM÷3T                          where:                 S = kg/cm²

U = number of increments spread (See Table B for conversion),

T = deposit thickness in cm,

K = the test strip calibration constant will be labeled on each lot of test strips,

M= the modulus of elasticity of the deposit ÷ by the modulus of elasticity of the substrate material (See Table A).

TEST STRIP MATERIAL RECOMMENDED PLATING CONDITIONS FOR PLATING See table 2 page 8 of DSA Brochure

Note: If the test conditions cause the test strip leg tips to spread beyond 20 units, reduce the deposition time and the deposit thickness for the test to improve accuracy.

FOR PN: 1194 – COPPER–IRON ALLOY 0.00508 cm thick (deposit stress from 105 to 10194 kg/cm²)

DEPOSIT STRESS M value for nickel plating M = 1.715 The correction factor for the difference in the modulus of elasticity between the deposit and that of the substrate = EDeposit ÷ ESubstrate = 2110813 ÷ 1230797 = 1.715 kg/cm².

FOR PN: 2042B – IRON-NICKEL ALLOY 0.00381 cm thick (deposit stress from 35 to 7030 kg/cm²)

Note: that this test strip material is applicable for tensile stressed deposits only.

DEPOSIT STRESS M value for nickel plating M = 1.4297 The correction factor for the difference in the modulus of elasticity between the deposit and that of the substrate = EDeposit ÷ ESubstrate = 2110813 ÷ 1476446= 1.4297 kg/cm²

 FOR PN: 270NI – PURE COLD ROLLED NICKEL 0.0011 INCH THICK  (deposit stress from 14 to 4218 kg/cm²)

DEPOSIT STRESS M value for nickel plating M = 1.0000 The correction factor for the difference in the modulus of elasticity between the deposit and that of the substrate = E Deposit ÷ E Substrate = 2110813 ÷ 2110813= 1.0000 kg/cm²

TABLE A                                        (Values for M)

Test Strip Material       1194 2042B 270NI
E Substrate 1,230,797 1,476,446 2,110,813
Stock Thickness, cm 0.00508 0.00381 0.002794
Metal    E Deposit Value   M M M
Cadmium 562,883 0.4573 0.3812 0.2667
Cobalt 2,528,896 2.0547 1.7128 1.1981
Chromium 2,151,601 1.7481 1.4573 1.0193
Copper 1,121,688 0.9114 0.7597 0.5314
Gold (Soft) 787,221 0.6396 0.5332 0.3729
Nickel 2,110,813 1.715 1.4297 1.0000
Palladium 1,193,068 0.9693 0.8081 0.5652
Platinum 1,743,715 1.4167 1.181 0.8261
Rhodium 3,660,781 2.9743 2.2763 1.7343
Sliver 774,984 0.6297 0.5249 0.3671
Tin 414,820 0.337 0.2809 0.1965
Zinc 984,026 0.7995 0.6665 0.4662

E Substrate= modulus of elasticity of the substrate material (test strip material).

E Deposit = modulus of elasticity of the plating deposit.

M= modulus of elasticity of the E Deposit ÷ modulus of elasticity of the E Substrate

Table B                    (U factor conversion) (*English is the increments spread on the Deposit Stress Analyzer)

Note:  If the increments spread is 6.5 the Metric would be 1.1598

English Metric English Metric English Metric
0 0 8.5 1.5172 17 3.034
0.5 0.0891 9 1.6066 17.5 3.1236
1 0.1782 9.5 1.6957 18 3.2129
1.5 0.2675 10 1.785 18.5 3.3025
2 0.3569 10.5 1.8741 19 3.3914
2.5 0.4452 11 1.9635 19.5 3.4807
3 0.5353 11.5 2.0528 20 3.5688
3.5 0.6247 12 2.1419 20.5 3.6595
4 0.7138 12.5 2.2308 21 3.7486
4.5 0.8031 13 2.3206 21.5 3.8377
5 0.8917 13.5 2.4097 22 3.9273
5.5 0.9816 14 2.4991 22.5 4.0161
6 1.0707 14.5 2.5882 23 4.1057
6.5 1.1598 15 2.6773 23.5 4.1951
7 1.2497 15.5 2.7667 24 4.2842
7.5 1.3388 16 2.8558 24.5 4.3735
8 1.4279 16.5 2.9454 25 4.4629