Cyanide Copper Baths

Concentration, g/l Strike Rochelle High Efficiency
CuCN 15 45 75
NaCN 28 56 100
KCN 133
Free NaCN 11 6
Free KCN 25
Cathode ASF 10 – 30 10 – 60 10 – 100
Temperature (°F) 120 – 145 129 – 160 140 – 180
Cathode Efficiency (%) 30 – 60 30 – 50 90 – 99

Pyrophosphate Copper Baths

Concentrations, g/l General Purpose Printed-Circuit
Copper 20 – 38 20 – 33
Pyrophosphate 125 – 250 130 – 250
Nitrate 5 – 10 5 – 10
Ammonia 1 – 3 1 – 3
Oxalate 15 – 30 15 – 30
Orthophosphate <115 <40
pH 8 – 9 8 – 9
Temperature (°F) 120 – 140 120 – 140
Cathode ASF 5 – 65 10 – 80

Note: Throwing power and current efficiency drop sharply with increasing current density.

Acid Copper Sulfate Baths

Concentrations, g/l General Purpose   Printed-Circuit
High-Throw  High-Speed
Copper Sulfate 190-250 60-90 80-135
Sulfuric Acid 45-90 150-225 185-260
Chloride Ion (ppm) 20-80 30-80 40-80
Temperature (°F) 70-100 70-90 70-109
Cathode ASF * 20-40 15-50 50-200
Cathode Efficiency (%) 100 100 100
Voltage 1-10 5-12 5-12

*Dependent on the degree of agitation

Hard Chrome Baths

Concentrations, oz/gal Sulfate Fluoride/Sulfate Acid/ Sulfate
Chromic Acid 32 32 32
Sulfate 0.32 0.16 0.35
CrO3:SO4 ratio 100:1 200:1 90:1
Appearance Semi-bright Bright Very Bright
Micro-cracks/inch 0-1,250 1,250-2,500 2,500-5,000
Temperature (°F) 130 130 140
Cathode ASF 150-580 150-860 150-860
Cathode Efficiency (%) 10-13 22-25 23-26

Decorative Hex Chrome Baths

Type Single-Catalyst Dual-Catalyst Triple-Catalyst
CrO3,  g/L 450-500 180-400 250
Catalyst Type Sulfat Sulfate/fluoride Sulfate/fluoride/choice
Temperature (°F) 100 100-150 90-150
Cathode ASF 80-120 100-150 90-150
Cathode Eff.(%) 8 12-18 20-25
Chloride Zinc Baths
Bath Type All Potassium Low Ammonium All Ammonium
Zinc (oz/gal) 3-5 2.5-4.5 2.0-4.5
NH4Cl  (oz/gal) 4-8 18-22
KCN (oz/gal) 25-30 16-20
Boric Acid (oz/gal) 3-5
Temperature (°F) 70-130 80-140 85-140
Cathode ASF 1-25 1-30 1-35
Cathode Efficiency (%) 95-100 95-100 95-100